The fourth book of the Pentateuch, Numbers, receives its English title from the two censuses taken of Israel’s population in chapters 1 and 26. The name comes from the Latin Vulgate's "Numeri" and Greek Septuagint's "Arithmoi," both meaning "numbers." In Hebrew, the book is called "Bemidbar," meaning "in the wilderness," a title reflecting its content more accurately.
Traditionally, Moses is acknowledged as the author of Numbers, with the book likely written between 1440 and 1400 B.C. during Israel's wilderness wanderings. The target audience was the Israelite people, primarily the second generation of those who had left Egypt, preparing to enter the Promised Land.
Numbers records the Israelites' journey from Mount Sinai to the plains of Moab on the border of Canaan, the Promised Land. It narrates a period of nearly 40 years of wilderness wanderings, detailing the trials, tribulations, and rebellions of the Israelites and God's patience and guidance throughout this period.
Eschatologically, Numbers is not as explicit as other books. However, it includes the prophecy of Balaam in Numbers 24:17-19, which has messianic implications: "A star shall come out of Jacob; a scepter shall rise out of Israel." This prophecy is often seen as pointing to the coming of Christ, the Messiah.
The hope in the book of Numbers is manifested through God's unwavering faithfulness to His people despite their repeated failures and unbelief. Even when they grumbled, rebelled, and disobeyed, God remained faithful, providing for them, guiding them, and preserving them. His divine patience and grace demonstrated in Numbers offer a hopeful foreshadowing of the ultimate grace and salvation brought through Jesus Christ, affirming that even in our unfaithfulness, God remains faithful.